The human being is honored with the blessings of the hearing, the eyesight and the brains - three vital devices to observe, analyze, reflect, connect and react to God's creation and proofs. Building up the "data base" for the logical conviction that God is the Absolute Authority and Intelligence behind all existence relies mainly on making use of these three devices. Yet, most of us fail to appreciate them or make use of them (67:23, 17:36, 47:24, 18:57, 6:39, 12:103, 12:106.)
Out of His infinite mercy, God also provided us in Quran with lessons and arguments based on reasoning and critical & logical thinking to assist us witnessing His signs and reaching sound judgments & conclusions. From these lessons & arguments, we learn the best approaches of debates and we develop the talent of appropriately using our argumentative nature (18:54) in the most rational and beneficial manner.
Whether it is through direct question/answer format, narration format, or the use of debates, examples & allegories, Quran helps us heed and learn the art of presenting and promoting the truth in the most efficient manner. There are numerous examples of God reasoning with the human and the jinn races, or messengers and knowledgeable people debating with disbelievers. The common foundation and logical approach of all arguments is this: NOTHING AFTER THE TRUTH EXCEPT FALSEHOOD. Presenters of either the truth or falsehood have THE BURDEN OF PROOF. The truth will always be verifiable and will always stand high, shiny & non-negotiable while it will always be impossible to prove falsehood. Those who introduce falsehood or attribute faulty claims, concepts or teachings to God and His message cannot stand any logical debate. The reason is that they will always fail to prove their contradictory and irrational stands and they will never have a support for their blasphemies. When it comes to the following challenging questions or arguments, they are speechless:
[10:32] Such is GOD, your rightful Lord. What is there after the truth, except falsehood? How could you disregard all this?
[37:155] Why do you not take heed?
[37:156] Do you have any proof?
[37:157] Show us your book, if you are truthful.
[2:111] Some have said, "No one will enter Paradise except Jews or Christians!" Such is their wishful thinking. Say, "Show us your proof, if you are right."
[55:13] (O humans and jinns,) which of your Lord's marvels can you deny?
[3:93] All food used to be lawful for the Children of Israel, until Israel imposed certain prohibitions on themselves before the Torah was sent down. Say, "Bring the Torah and read it, if you are truthful."
[52:34] Let them produce a Hadith like this, if they are truthful.
[17:88] Say, "If all the humans and all the jinns banded together in order to produce a Quran like this, they could never produce anything like it, no matter how much assistance they lent one another."
[68:35] Shall we treat the Submitters like the criminals?
[68:36] What is wrong with your logic?
[68:37] Do you have another book to uphold?
[68:38] In it, do you find anything you want?
[2:91] When they are told, "You shall believe in these revelations of GOD," they say, "We believe only in what was sent down to us." Thus, they disbelieve in subsequent revelations, even if it is the truth from their Lord, and even though it confirms what they have! Say, "Why then did you kill GOD's prophets, if you were believers?"
[22:73] O people, here is a parable that you must ponder carefully: the idols you set up beside GOD can never create a fly, even if they banded together to do so. Furthermore, if the fly steals anything from them, they cannot recover it; weak is the pursuer and the pursued.
[3:61] If anyone argues with you, despite the knowledge you have received, then say, "Let us summon our children and your children, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us invoke GOD's curse upon the liars."
[3:62] Absolutely, this is the narration of the truth. Absolutely, there is no god except GOD. Absolutely, GOD is the Almighty, Most Wise.
[3:63] If they turn away, then GOD is fully aware of the evildoers.
[10:34] Say, "Can any of your idols initiate creation, then repeat it?" Say, "GOD initiates the creation, then repeats it." How could you deviate?
[2:94] Say, "If the abode of the Hereafter is reserved for you at GOD, to the exclusion of all other people, then you should long for death, if you are truthful."
[2:95] They never long for it, because of what their hands have sent forth. GOD is fully aware of the wicked.
The following are some examples of logical arguments with the people of the scripture. The same exact approach is used - no proofs for conjecture, NOTHING AFTER THE TRUTH EXCEPT FALSEHOOD :
[3:65] O followers of the scripture, why do you argue about Abraham, when the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed until after him? Do you not understand?
[3:66] You have argued about things you knew; why do you argue about things you do not know? GOD knows, while you do not know.
[3:67] Abraham was neither Jewish, nor Christian; he was a monotheist submitter. He never was an idol worshiper.
[2:135] They said, "You have to be Jewish or Christian, to be guided." Say, "We follow the religion of Abraham - monotheism - he never was an idol worshiper."
[2:139] Say, "Do you argue with us about GOD, when He is our Lord and your Lord? We are responsible for our deeds, and you are responsible for your deeds. To Him alone we are devoted."
[2:140] Do you say that Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs were Jewish or Christian? Say, "Do you know better than GOD? Who is more evil than one who conceals a testimony he has learned from GOD? GOD is never unaware of anything you do."
[23:91] GOD has never begotten a son. Nor was there ever any other god beside Him. Otherwise, each god would have declared independence with his creations, and they would have competed with each other for dominance. GOD be glorified; far above their claims.
[5:68] Say, "O people of the scripture, you have no basis until you uphold the Torah, and the Gospel, and what is sent down to you herein from your Lord." For sure, these revelations from your Lord will cause many of them to plunge deeper into transgression and disbelief. Therefore, do not feel sorry for the disbelieving people.
And we heed the guidance of these knowledgeable servants of God:
[36:20] A man came from the other end of the city, saying, "O my people, follow the messengers.
[36:21] "Follow those who do not ask you for any wage, and are guided.
[36:22] "Why should I not worship the One who initiated me, and to Him is your ultimate return?
[36:23] "Shall I set up beside Him gods? If the Most Gracious willed any harm for me, their intercession cannot help me one bit, nor can they rescue me.
[36:24] "In that case, I would be totally astray.
[40:28] A believing man among Pharaoh's people, who was concealing his belief, said, "How can you kill a man just for saying, `My Lord is God,' and he has shown you clear proofs from your Lord? If he is a liar, that is his problem, and if he is truthful, you benefit from his promises. Surely, God does not guide any transgressor, liar.
Quran also uses similes and metaphors as powerful tools to properly and clearly highlight the truth:
[14:24] Do you not see that GOD has cited the example of the good word as a good tree whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches are high in the sky?
[14:26] And the example of the bad word is that of a bad tree chopped at the soil level; it has no roots to keep it standing.
[18:45] Cite for them the example of this life as water that we send down from the sky to produce plants of the earth, then they turn into hay that is blown away by the wind. GOD is able to do all things.
[29:41] The allegory of those who accept other masters beside GOD is that of the spider and her home; the flimsiest of all homes is the home of the spider, if they only knew.*
Abraham was surely a vanguard in reasoning and debating. He had great and logical dialogs. He was indeed a good example for all generations (60:4). After ruling out the moon or the sun as gods since they cannot and do not befit his vision of the Creator of all and everything or conform with his monotheistic ideologies (6:76-78), he started campaigning for the path of monotheism. All of his challenging questions and/or comments to disbelievers demonstrate the same exact approach - NOTHING AFTER THE TRUTH EXCEPT FALSEHOOD and the burden of proof is an obligation that falsifiers cannot ever fulfill:
[6:78].... "O my people, I denounce your idolatry.
[6:79] ”I have devoted myself absolutely to the One who initiated the heavens and the earth; I will never be an idol worshiper."
[6:80] His people argued with him. He said, "Do you argue with me about GOD, after He has guided me? I have no fear of the idols you set up. Nothing can happen to me, unless my Lord wills it. My Lord's knowledge encompasses all things. Would you not take heed?
[6:81] ”Why should I fear your idols? It is you who should be afraid, since you worship instead of GOD idols that are utterly powerless to help you. Which side is more deserving of security, if you know?"
[6:82] Those who believe, and do not pollute their belief with idol worship, have deserved the perfect security, and they are truly guided.
[6:83] Such was our argument, with which we supported Abraham against his people. We exalt whomever we will to higher ranks. Your Lord is Most Wise, Omniscient.
[2:258] Have you noted the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord, though GOD had given him kingship? Abraham said, "My Lord grants life and death." He said, "I grant life and death." Abraham said, "GOD brings the sun from the east, can you bring it from the west?" The disbeliever was stumped. GOD does not guide the wicked.
[19:42] He said to his father, "O my father, why do you worship what can neither hear, nor see, nor help you in any way?
[19:43] ”O my father, I have received certain knowledge that you did not receive. Follow me, and I will guide you in a straight path.
[19:44] ”O my father, do not worship the devil. The devil has rebelled against the Most Gracious.
[19:45] ”O my father, I fear lest you incur retribution from the Most Gracious, then become an ally of the devil."
He broke his people's statues into pieces (21:58) and had a very powerful and challenging debate with them:
[21:62] They said, "Did you do this to our gods, O Abraham?"
[21:63] He said, "It is that big one who did it. Go ask them, if they can speak."
[21:64] They were taken aback, and said to themselves, "Indeed, you are the ones who have been transgressing."
[21:65] Yet, they reverted to their old ideas: "You know full well that these cannot speak."
[21:66] He said, "Do you then worship beside GOD what possesses no power to benefit you or harm you?
[21:67] ”You have incurred shame by worshiping idols beside GOD. Do you not understand?"
Those who possess intelligence and deserve the gift of God's guidance learn from all the above lessons how to process whatever is presented and to distinguish the truth from falsehood. They develop the skill of reasoning based on justice, integrity and knowledge, not fabrications, rumors and conjecture. In doing that, liars are exposed - blasphemies go to waste:
[13:17] He sends down water from the sky, causing the valleys to overflow, then the rapids produce abundant foam. Similarly, when they use fire to refine metals for their jewelry or equipment, foam is produced. GOD thus cites analogies for the truth and falsehood. As for the foam, it goes to waste, while that which benefits the people stays close to the ground. GOD thus cites the analogies.
[14:27] GOD strengthens those who believe with the proven word, in this life and in the Hereafter. And GOD sends the transgressors astray. Everything is in accordance with GOD's will.
Peaceful Friday, salaam and God bless.